By Ekwere J. Peters PhD PE
The collage of Texas process Board of Regents authorized Dr. Ekwere J. Peters as a professor emeritus. within the 85-year historical past of UT PGE purely 5 different professors have got the distinguished identify: Folkert Brons, Sylvain Pirson, Harry H. strength, Ben H. Caudle and Robert (Bob) Schechter. Peters retired in 2011 after 30 years of undertaking leading edge examine and perfect educating at UT PGE, leaving his mark on generations of engineers.
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Soxhlet extractor. As the core is brought from the high pressure and temperature of the reservoir to the low pressure and temperature of the laboratory, changes occur in the fluid saturations which can make them considerably different from the original in-situ saturations. The free gas, if present, will expand, expelling water and oil in the process. Solution gas will evolve from the oil, expand and further reduce the oil and water volumes. The evolution of solution gas causes the oil to "shrink".
11. Retort distillation apparatus. There are two disadvantages to the retort method of saturation determination. In order to remove all the oil, it is necessary to heat the core to temperatures in the range of 1000 to 1100 °F. 2-19 At these temperatures, the water of crystallization (hydration) of the rock is driven off, resulting in an estimated water saturation that is higher than the true interstitial (connate) water saturation. The second disadvantage is that the oil when heated to high temperatures has a tendency to crack and coke.
This reservoir contains a hydrocarbon bearing zone and a water bearing zone at the bottom. The gross pay thickness, which is the thickness of the hydrocarbon bearing portion of the reservoir as determined from the resistivity log (see Chapter 2), is h0 . However, this thickness contains shale breaks which will not be productive and must be discounted to determine the net pay to be used in reserves estimation. 2) The net to gross is a number that is less than or equal to 1 or if expressed as a percentage, is a number that is less than or equal to 100%.