By John G. Scandalios, Theodore R.F. Wright, John G. Scandalios (Eds.)
This quantity in a chain on genetics, emphasizes the range of genetic experiences. Articles hide the filamentous fungus neurospora, biogenesis of yeast ribosomes, evolutionary genetics of fish, drosophila transposable components and the dropophila gene zeste.
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Extra info for Advances in Genetics, Vol. 26
Chemical treatment and biotic (viral, bacterial, and fungal diseases) and abiotic stresses (high and low temperatures, drought, salinity, and pesticides) produce specific selection pressures. Although it is generally found that the number of pollen grains per plant (or per flower) greatly exceeds the number of ovules (Ter Avanesian, 1949; Stephenson and Bertin, 1983), information with regard to the pollen load per stigma (pollen grains per stigma and time interval of pollen deposition) is available only for a few species.
In addition, only stigmatic pollinations significantly impeded the growth of intrastylar pollen tubes and did not affect those growing toward the ovary. Subsequent studies have shown that growth toward the ovary is significantly stimulated by stigmatic pollination (G. B. Mulcahy, 1989). V. Garnetophytic Gene Expression and Evolution A. POLLEN COMPETITION IN NATURALPOPULATIONS Feinsinger et al. (1986) studied pollen loads on the stigmas of four hummingbird-pollinated cloud forest species. Each species received a number of pollen grains equal to or greater than the number of ovules GENETICS OF ANGIOSPERM POLLEN 33 in a percentage of flowers sampled in three runs; for Besleria triflora (gesneriaceae) this was 4-16%; for Drymonia rubra (Gesneriaceae), 4-16%; for Hansteinia blepharorachis (Acanthaceae),50-74%; and for Razisea spicata (Acanthaceae), 15-30%.
Presumably these values correspond to the absence or presence, respectively, of pollen tube competition. Stanton (1987) found that seed set is not limited by the availability of pollen in R . satzuus, but reviewed many examples in which pollen is, in fact, limiting (see also Bertin, 1982). Pollen limitation in seed set is, perhaps not unexpectedly, common in species which flower in the early 34 ERCOLE OTTAVIANO AND DAVID L. MULCAHY spring (Bierzychudek, 1981) or in other cold, damp conditions (Campbell, 1987).