By Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Mehdi Aminrazavi
Persia is domestic to at least one of the few civilizations on the earth that has had a continual culture of philosophical proposal for over and a part millennia. As Islamic theology constructed within the center a while, lots of its faculties interacted with present Persian philosophical currents and advanced right into a particular philosophical 'Kalam', or dogmatic theology. one of the definitive masters of either Shi'i and Sunni theologians have been various Persians, leader between them Al-Ghazzali and Fakhr al-Din Al-Razi, who're prominently represented right here. very important choices from either Shi'i and Sunni theological faculties (including Mu'tazila and Ash'ariyya) are integrated within the quantity, lots of that have by no means ahead of been to be had in translation within the West earlier.
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Additional info for An Anthology of Philosophy in Persia, Volume 3: Philosophical Theology in the Middle Ages and Beyond
Shahrastānī argues that it is impossible for anything not to have a beginning and further, in the same section, he continues the argument against the Muʿtazilite dualist and naturalist philosophers by once again arguing that God is the ultimate cause and the origin of all things. Shahrastānī is a remarkable figure in that he represents an interesting case of an Ashʿarite who uses rational arguments and logic and writes in a philosophical language very similar to the Peripatetics but with the intention of opposing the rational philosophers.
Here he engages in a discussion of doctrine of the ‘Unity of being’ and in so doing makes an attempt to bring about a rapprochement between Ibn ʿArabī and Suhrawardī’s illuminationist (ishrāqī) views. He also discusses the differences between theologians and Sufis and their understanding of the concept of Divine unity (tawḥīd). Saʿd al-Dīn Taftāzānī, a theologian born in Khurāsān in 722/1322 whose work is presented in the seventh chapter, represents the pinnacle of later Ashʿarite theology. At that time there was in Shīrāz a school of kalām which was more opposed to philosophy than Ījī and Jurjānī, of which Taftāzānī is the perfect representative.
It is not the case: 1) that [fire] ceases to exist; it has actually been transformed to a higher, celestial form and become continuous, and thus returned to its original place; or its parts become dispersed in the air; 2) nor that it was latent in the wood, penetrating it and compressed in it, so that when it became manifest it expanded and spread. In fact, the flame is simply air transformed into fire, because air is very akin to fire, water being the barrier between them. For fire is dry and hot, whereas water is moist and cold and air is hot and moist.