By B I Medovar, V Ya Saenko, G M Grigorenko, Yu M Pomarin, V I Kumysh
The ebook describes the strategy of remelting consumable electrodes with an electrical are burning among the outside of a liquid slag tub and a consumable electrode in a water-cooled copper mildew. the strategy combines the chances of remedy of liquid steel with the electrical arc within the gasoline surroundings and the liquid slag and some great benefits of plasma-arc and electro slag remelting. The technological percentages, layout positive aspects of melting structures and result of experimental and business melting trials of steels and alloys are defined. as well as remelting structural steels, detailed cognizance is given to the potential for alloying the steel with nitrogen from the fuel section, with out utilizing dear nitrogen-bearing nonmetallic compounds, e.g. silicon nitride. it's proven that arc slag remelting can be used successfully in generating ingots of titanium and its alloys. the implications got during this strategy are in comparison with electro slag remelting and plasma arc remelting. information on strength intake and steel caliber also are offered.
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Extra info for ARC-Slag Remelting of Steel and Alloys
In ASR, the surface of the liquid slag (or metallic) pool is one of the electrodes. The slag bath is a melt of an electrolyte with a large number of complicated and simple ions. Its temperature may reach 2500°C. Certain slag components can evaporate at these temperatures, whereas others dissociate into ions and, in this form, may take part in the current transfer process. However, since the temperature of arc discharge is considerably higher than that of the slag pool, the intensity of the processes of evaporation, dissociation and ionization here is considerably higher.
In future, the role of these remelting processes will become more important. Special attention must be given to the combined use of the electric arc and the slag. The electric arc directly or in one of its forms (vacuum arc, plasma arc) is used widely in metallurgy and is an efficient and clean heat source. The synthetic slag through which the current is passed efficiently shields the metal, deconcentrates the heat over the cross section of the ingot regardless of its form, supports the formation of a smooth surface, intensifies certain metallurgical reactions (removal of sulphur) and stabilizes the arc.
However, in addition to this, the cathode surface is bombarded with ions acquiring the kinetic energy in the electric field of the near-cathode region of the arc. 6 The rate of absorption also increases with increasing cathodic voltage drop. The slag may also be a source of gas absorbed by metal. The process of transfer of the gas from the slag into metal is slower than from the gas phase. This process takes place by diffusion, and the process rate depends on the concentration gradient between the slag and the metal, temperature and physical properties of the slag.